Tea Feasibilty Studies and Researches
STUDY ABOUT THE PROJECT FOR EXCHANGING THE LOW PRODUCTIVE OLD TEA BUSHES
HIGH PRODUCTIVE SELECTED TEA CLONES
In our country 6 % of tea plantation areas that began to establish since 1938 and spead out 767,000 decars and all of them established with tea seeds have been completed their economical lives.For the improvement and rehabilitation of tea culture that is the main source of living in East Black Tea Region, it is necessary to renew the tea plantation which have been established with seeds and completed their economical lives.According to the renewation program, high productive selected tea clones must be replaced with low productive old tea bushes, respectively
Tea seedlings which are propagated from selected tea cuttings have the same properties with its full grown tea bushes.Tea gardens which are established with the same selected tea clones that have high quality, high productivity, high resistance against pest and diseases, high adaptation ability to the environmental conditions have the same identical properties.For that reason,the method of clonal propagation is used all of the tea producing countries.
The success of clonal propagation depends on the determination of the full grown tea bushes which has high quality, high productivity, high resistance against pests and diseases in different ecological conditions by means of a successful clonal propagation methods.
PLANNING AND NECESSITY OF ORGANIC CULTIVATION* Ekrem YÜCE ** Dr. Muammer SARIMEHMET
This study has been put across
with the numerical values about the productivity which belonged to the five
private sector tea factories and five Çaykur tea factories.
Production expenses of bulk black tea have been divided into six main groups like the cost of raw material (fresh tea leaves), personnel expenditures (employees and officers), energy expenditures, materials and transportation expenditures, amortization expenditures and others.
At the last ten years period, the unit price of raw material has been changed between 72.50 % and 40.86 % proportionally, and average ratio was 56.52 % for Çaykur tea factories. Likewise it has been changed between 67.96 % and 57.25 % and average ratio was 60.60 %. The other quotation elements not only in Çaykur tea factories but also in private sector factories have been shown changeability.
SOME POINT OF VIEWS AND PROPOSALS ABOUT FERTILIZE OF TEA* Dr. Muammer SARIMEHMET ** Hülya MAHMUTOĞLU
In our country,tea plant is only propagated in a limited area of Black Tea Region which is a limited microclimate region.Quality of the produced dry tea depends on the quality of raw material, directly. Fertilization has a great importance in the technical supports for the healthy growth of raw materials which consist of fresh tea shoots in tea culture.
For propagating qualified and large amount of crops and providing for requirement of tea plants from nitrogen fertilizers, it is necessary to exist P and K in the soil. In a study about the contents of nutrient elements of tea soils, it was shown that the content of P and especially in the old tea plantations, the content of K are low.
The most suitable chemical fertilizer combination for satisfying the necessity of nutrient elements in our tea soils, was determined as a combination of 5:1:2 (N: P: K) compose fertilizer and it was suggested to apply the fertilizer as 80 -100 kgs / decar.
* Çay Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü. Toprak Kısım
Müdürü . Ziraat Yüksek Mühendisi 1991- RİZE
** Çay Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü . Teknoloji Kısım Müdürlüğü Ziraat Yüksek Mühendisi 1991- RİZE
THE RESEARCH ABOUT AVAILABLE PHOSPHORUS VALUES IN THE TEA SOILS OF EASTERN BLACK SEA REGION
*N. Mucella MÜFTÜOĞLU ** Muammer SARIMEHMET
A RESEARCH ON THE ORGANIC MATTER OF THE TEA SOILS OF THE EASTERN BLACK SEA REGION* Muammer SARIMEHMET ** N.Mücella MÜFTÜOĞLU
The purpose of the experiment was to determine the organic matter
percentage of the tea soils. For this purpose 1677 sample was chosen and
analyzed. The following results were obtained.
In soil samples organic matter percentage was determined as 4.29, 9.96, 16.76, 47.05 % for the very little , little, medium excessive and very excessive levels respectively.
The purpose of the experiment was to determine the acidity of the tea soils. For this purpose 1815 sample was chosen and analyzed for acidity.The following results were obtained. The lowest pH is obtained in Rize.When all the eastern black sea region was taken into consideration, 62.20 % of the soil was not optimum for the tea plantation.
A STUDY ABOUT THE DETERMINATION
OF QUALITY PARAMETERS OF VARIOUS KINDS OF ÇAYKUR GREEN TEAS WHICH BELONG TO
THE 1ST SHOOTING PERIOD OF 2004 AND THE COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF
GREEN TEA THAT ARE PRODUCED IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES
*Şaziye (ÇEPER) ILGAZ **Dr.
Muammer SARIMEHMET ***Zuhal KALCIOĞLU
Green tea, originated from China has been used as a beverage and medicine in China since 2700 BC.The Japanese custom of drinking green tea came from China about 800 AD.
Green tea is manufactured from the fresh shoots of Camellia sinensis.Green tea manufacturing depends on the inactivation of tea leaf enzymes which are called oxidation enzymes by steaming or pan-firing of fresh leaves.Polyphenol oxidase is the most important enzyme in green tea production. As the oxidation is prevented by the inactivation of polyhenols are not oxidised and the leaves remain green.
The chemical composition of green tea varies with climate, season,horticultural practices, and the age of the leaf (position of the leaf on the harvested shoot).The major components of green tea are polyphenols especially EGCG.The other components of green tea are caffeine, theanine (a kind of amino acid),vitamins, organic acids, polysaccharides, protein lignin ,fluoride, minerals,etc.
In recent years, with the advance of modern chemistry,components of green tea have been analyzed and the health effects of green tea have progressed to the point where there is now scientific confirmation for the saying that Green teas is a miraculous drink for the maintenance of health. This expression belongs to the monk Eisai from Japanese.
One of the most exciting health developments of nineteenth century has been the discovery of anti-carcinogenic properties of green tea.In the last scientific researches have confirmed that green tea polyphenols have powerful anti-carcinogenic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and antimicrobial activities.
With the increasing interest in green tea for health benefist, the developed countries in the world are all increasing their consumption of green tea.
Green tea is mainly used as a beverage as dried tea, but it is also used in the manufacture of canned tea drinks, ice-creams,biscuits, cakes, catechins (supplies antioxidants for pharmaceutical products), cosmetis products (skin-care, shampoos, deodorants), filters, soaps, toothpaste, etc.
In the 3rd shooting period of 2003, Çaykur green tea has been begun to produce in Green The Experimental Production Centre of Çaykur Organization.At the beginning of this year, the production centre have been reorganized and developed for producing more green tea than before.And now its capacity is 10 tones fresh tea leaves per day.The inactivation of tea leaf enzymes which are called oxidation enzymes is achieved by steaming in this production centre.Steamed tea leaves are rolled and dried gradually for improving the aroma and protecting the components of green tea as much as possible.
The aim of this study is formed and developed the custom of drinking green tea especially Çaykur Green Tea in Turkey.For this reason,the quality characteristics of Çaykur Green Tea have been tried to determine in Atatürk Tea Research Institute.
For the research work fresh tea shoots of 1 st shooting period, crude and clssified Çaykur Green Teas, and six different markets in Turkey have been used as materials.
A series of physical, chemical and organoleptic analysis have been done in Tea Research Institute labratories and the results of these analysis have been appreciated by means of statistical analysis method.
Dried tea yield, different physical characteristics, moisture, water extract, total ash, water-soluble ash, acid-insoluble ash, alkalinity of water soluble ash, cellulose, polyphenol, caffeine, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg contents and organoleptic analysis of Çaykur Green Teas and six different kinds of green tea which are produced in foreign countries have been determined.
As a conclusion; we can say that the results of the analysis of Çaykur Green tea which belongs to the 1st shooting period of 2004 were found to be corresponded to the results of the popular green teas in the world which were studied in Japan, China, India, England, USA, etc.And it was determined that the quality characteristics of Çaykur Green Teas are better than the other green teas are produced in foreign countries and sold in Turkey.Both of these analysis have been shown that Çaykur Green Tea is the best quality green tea in Turkey. We hope that it will be the best green tea in the world .
* Atatürk Çay ve Bahçe Bitkileri
Araştırma Enstitüsünde Ziraat Yüksek Mühendisi, Rize
** Atatürk Çay ve Bahçe Bitkileri Enstitüsü Müdürü, Rize
*** Atatürk Çay ve Bahçe Bitkileri Araştırma Enstitüsünde Ziraat Mühendisi
Çay İşletmeleri Genel Müdürlüğü, 2004/ RİZE
THE EFFECTS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON WASHING AWAY OF AVAILABLE POTASSIUM IN SOIL FOR TEA FARMING
Chemical fertilizers, aside from being benifical to the soil in some ways, can create negative results as well.Nitrogen fertilizers ,in particular,can cause acidity in the soil and make it easier for some basic cations to be washed away.With the idea that the ammonium sulphate fertilizers, which have been used in tea farming for some time, makes it easier for the potassium in the soil to be washed away, research was conducted upon soil samples taken from 6 different tea fields which would produce different levels of potassium.
These samples were air dried in the Institutes laboratory then measured out into 1.5 kg samples and later placed in special washing containers.Four treatments were administered to the soil samples and each treatment repeated 3 times. In the first treatment 30 kg of ammonium suphate was administered to the dekar; in the 2nd and 3 rd treatments the same amount of ammonium, including azote as well, and urea were added; and in the 4th treatment no fertilizers were added.
After washing, the washed percentage value of K found in the soil was less than the percentage value of K found in the drained soil.This situation results from the fact that the available potassium in the soil which has decreased after washing was reinforced by the non-available potassium found in the soil.
After washing it was seen that from the free potassium as a whole, the % of potassium which was washed away the most was found after the application of ammonium sulphate (40.59 %), thereafter ammonium nitrate (32.5 %) and later urea ( 30.46 %). In the samples where the least % of potasium was washed away was seen in samples where fertilizers were not administered.
* Assistant Director of General Directory of Tea Processing Plants, Rize
** Head of Soil Department in Tea Research Institute ,Rize
TUBITAK CAYKUR The General Directory of Tea Processing Plants 1987 / RİZE
* Hamit VANLI ** Mustafa BİLSEL ***Muammer SARIMEHMET
In Turkey manufacture of black tea leaves is being done using the classical rolling system since 1940.Rotorvane was used only in Çiftlik Tea Factory in 1979 and Muratlı and Taşçılar Factories in 1984. Besides rolling method, different production methods and various combinations of these were developed and used in tea producing countries.
This study aims to define the most suitable production method for our country considering the quality and capacity, using the existing machinery and combination of the two production methods (rolling and rotorvane ) presently used. In the trials, tea leaves bought daily at five purchasing offices belonging to Cumhuriyet Tea Plant were used.For each combination approximately 2500 kg of leaves were used.
Trials were run for five production combinations and law of repeating averages , without interfering with the production norm.
Production combinations used in the trial runs were
*Dr. Muammer SARIMEHMET **Selma YURDOĞLU
In Turkey , a series of researches have been done since the Çernobil accident.This subject is very important not only in Turkey, but also in European countries.It was a very bad experience for the world.We believe that these kind of studies are very important for our safety.
In soil samples taken from the plantation areas in Tirebolu , Araklı, Sürmene, salarha and Kirazlık total radioactivity levels of 134 Cs and 137 Cs were found to be 216, 106, 118, 283 and 415 Bq/kg respectively. At the same plantation areas, in the stems of the tea plants, radioactivity levels of cesium were found to be 208, 139 , 268, 461 and 425 Bq/kg respectively.The least radioactivity levels were found in Araklı and the most radioactiviy levels were found in Salaha And Kirazlık plantation areas . There is an important correlation between soil and plant radio activity levels of the same plants.The radioactivity levels of cesium have been counted to be 132, 248 , 143, 314 ve 369 Bq/kg , respectively, in the old leaves is less than the level in the plant stems.The radioactivity of cesium was measured with the old tea leaves that were taken from the pruned tea bushes.These results showed that the radioactivity of cesium rates decreased a little but this is not important statistically.
In this study , the tea leaves were taken from pruned and unpruned tea bushes.The radioactivity levels of cesium were compared between pruned and unpruned tea bushes during the first, second and third flush periods.
A STUDY ABOUT THE DETERMINATION OF THE CONTENTS OF MACRO ELEMENTS (N,P,K) AND THE PRODUCTIVITY ABILITIES OF TEA SOILS
This research project was started in the Rize Tea Research Institute of Turkey in March 1985.Cuttings have been taken from two perviously selected clones named Muradiye- 10 and Fener-3 were planted in two different mediums of soil+perlit and soil+sand which were contained in polyethylene bags of suitable size (measures of volume).The plants have been transferred into the shaded polyethylene tunnels have developed an evident root and top growth in six months time and have taken the form of nursery during this period.The nurseries on this stage were used as the test plant in the experiment.The test plants were supplied with different levels of N (No , Nı ,N2 and N3 ), P ( Po, Pı ,P2) and K (Ko, Kı, K2).Since the N3 applications have caused severe damage to the plants, this treatment was completely eliminated and tea experiment rearranged in 2x2x3x3x3 factorial design.
In the experiment the nutrients were applied to the growing mediums in solution in 10 equal portions with a frequency of two weeks intervals. The carriers of N ,P and K were 21 % (NH4)2SO4 , pure P2O5 and 50 % K2SO4 respectively.After one year of growth.the nurseries were harvested.On the harvested plants, growth parameters such as dryweight of leaves , stems , roots and the ration of top to roots and the ratio of top to root , leaf area , number of leaves and plants hight were meaured or calculated; and the chemical analysis such as N , P and K contents of leaves , stems and roots were carried out.
Statistical evolution (analysis) of the experimental data have shown that the highest leaf and stem weight , top to root ratio , leaf area, number of leaves and plant hight were obtained with NıP2Ko fertilizer treatment.On the other hand NıPıK2 fertilizer combination has given the highest root weight.On the basis of these results it was concluded that 1 g.N (Nı), 3 g P2O5 (P2) and no potassium (Ko) per plant were optimum N ,P ,K levels.But for the root growth , the optimum K level was found to be K2 (3 g.K2O) treatment .Ineffectiveness of leaves, stems and roots were carried out.
Statistical evolution (analysis) of the experimental data have shown that highest leaf and stem weight , top to root ratio , leaf area, number of leaves and plant hight were obtained with NıP2Ko fertilizer treatment.ON the other hand NıPıK2 fertilizer combination has given the highest root weight.On the basis of these results it was concluded that 1 g.N (Nı), 3 g. P2O5 (P2) and no potassium (Ko) per plant were optimum N,P, K levels.But for the root growth , the optimum K level was found to be K2 (3 g. K2O) treatment.Ineffectiveness of the K treatments on majority of the growth parameters tend to suggest that the soil used in preparing the growth media may contain plant available K high enough for nurseries.
As a result of chemical palnt analysis it was inferred that N , P and K contents of leaves , stems and roots have increased depending on the increasing N ,P, K applications. On the other hand. an antagonistic effect between N and K was noted, especially in higher N and K application levels.Namely, İncreasing N levels decreased K uptake and vice versa by the test plant.
* Atatürk Çay ve Bahçe Bitkileri araşırma Enstitüsü.RİZE
*Dr.Muammer SARIMEHMET **Hamit VANLI ***Dursun NAİBOĞLU ****Yetiş SARIAHMETOĞLU
the next generation can be taking advantage of tea farming and industry, it
is important the reorganization of tea farming and must be making
investments for this sector.In last years tea farming is lost its value.Thus
the amount of total income has been decreased therefore the population
density has been reduced in East Black Tea Region.Because of the properties
of tea farming , there isnt enough possibility to make other agricultural
activities productively in this region.For that reason tea farming must be
reorganized immediately and rehabilitation projects must be developed about
It is inevitable for this sector that tea shrubs must be prunned a time per five years,the contents of tea soils must be analysed and it must be abandoned for applying only N fertilizers, usage of organic fertilizers must be became widespread in tea farming, apposite technologies must be elected for farming and manufacturing, tea farming and manufacturing methods must be compatible with the standards of TSE and ISO, the value of fresh tea leaves must be gone up and market value of produced tea and fresh tea leaves must be put up between 100% 300%. Some efficient projects must be formed and developed these obligations.
In the second part, 3
locations in the region are chosen , and in each locations four plantations,
and in each plantation four plants are chosen.Leaf samples are collected
from those chosen plants ,every year after harvest during the course of two
years.The leaves are grouped as first leave + during the course of two
years.The leaves are grouped as first leave + bud, second leaves,
thirds+fourth leaves and these grouped as first leave + bud , second leaves,
thirds + fourth leaves and these groups of leaves are analysed for the
potassium content.Total potassium content of the leaves were found as1.75% ,
1.65% , 1.45% , 0.96 % in the bud + first leaf , second leaf , third +
fourth leaf and old leaf respectively.
THE EFFECTS OF NITROGEN
FERTILIZERS (Ammonium sulphate , Ammonium Nitrate and Urine)
ON WASHING AWAY OF AVAILABLE POTASSIUM IN SOIL FOR TEA FARMING