Tea Feasibilty Studies and Researches


 
 

A FEASIBILITY STUDY ABOUT THE PROJECT FOR EXCHANGING THE LOW  PRODUCTIVE OLD TEA BUSHES WITH 
HIGH PRODUCTIVE SELECTED TEA CLONES
 

* Dr. Turgay TURNA               ** Dr. Muammer SARIMEHMET                *** Dr. Hülya MAHMUTOĞLU

 
    SUMMARY
 

  In our country 6 % of tea plantation areas that began to establish since 1938 and spead out 767,000 decars and all of  them established with tea seeds have been completed their economical lives.For the improvement and rehabilitation of tea culture that is the main source of  living in East Black Tea Region, it is necessary to renew the tea plantation which have been established with seeds and completed their economical lives.According to the renewation program, high productive selected tea clones must be replaced with low productive old tea bushes, respectively

    Tea seedlings which are propagated from selected tea cuttings have the same properties with its full grown tea bushes.Tea gardens which are established with the same selected tea clones that have high quality, high productivity, high resistance against pest and diseases, high adaptation ability to the environmental conditions have the same identical properties.For that reason,the method of clonal propagation is used all of the tea producing countries.

    The success of clonal propagation depends on the determination of the full grown tea bushes which has high quality, high productivity, high resistance against pests and diseases in different ecological conditions by means of a successful clonal propagation methods.

    In this study, it is proposed that the renewation program have to begin in the region from Araklı (Karadere) to Georgia Border that its altitude above the sea level between 0 – 500 m’s and has been established between 1938 -1940 years and now all of them are between 55 -60 years old tea gardens.Clonal propagation  gardens that will be established in the first 6 years of  this study, not only will have demostrative properties, but also will provide a source for clonal propagation.

 
* Çay İşletmeleri Genel Müdür Yardımcısı
 ** Çay Araştırma Enstitüsü Müdürü
*** Çay Tarım Dairesinde Şube Müdürü,  Çay İşletmeleri Genel Müdürlüğü  2004/RİZE
 

PLANNING AND NECESSITY OF ORGANIC CULTIVATION

* Ekrem YÜCE              ** Dr. Muammer SARIMEHMET

 
    SUMMARY

  
 In this century, it is known that not only quantity but also quality are very important parameters in industry,agriculture and other production sectors.In the last 50 years, a lot of studies have been done about quality and quantity parameters of agricultural products.For feeding the increasing human population, some solutions have been explored like enlargement of agricultural plantations and agumentation of the output of unitt area.For increasing the quality and the quantity of agricultural products,some subjects like pestisid applications, using chemical fertilizers and hormones, and the studies about gene engineering have been done time to time.    
 

    Subjects, declared above, all of them hold good not only general agriculture but also tea culture.In the last years, consumers have refused all of  them and disregarded the quantity of the products and they have prefered the products which are produced in natural conditions. It is deliberated that the consumers prefer to buy and consume products which are produced in full natural conditions with high prices. Here is a feasibility study about organic tea propagation.

 
 
* Çay İşletmeleri Genel Müdürü. 2004 / RİZE
** ÇAYKUR Çay Araştırma Enstitüsü Müdürü.  2004 / RİZE
Karadeniz Bölgesinin Organik Fındık ve Çay Tarımı Potansiyeli. Panel  O.M.U Ziraat Fakültesi .  2004 / SAMSUN
 

THE PROBLEMS ABOUT THE PRODUCTIVITY OF TEA PROCESSING INDUSTRIES

* Dr. Muammer SARIMEHMET

 

    SUMMARY
 

    This study has been put across with the numerical values about the productivity which belonged to the five private sector tea factories and five Çaykur tea factories.

    Production expenses of bulk black tea have been divided into six main groups like the cost of raw material (fresh tea leaves), personnel expenditures (employees and officers), energy expenditures, materials and transportation expenditures, amortization expenditures and others.

    At the last ten years’ period, the unit price of raw material has been changed between 72.50 %  and 40.86 % proportionally, and average ratio was 56.52 % for Çaykur tea factories. Likewise it has been changed between 67.96 % and 57.25 % and average ratio was 60.60 %. The other quotation elements not only in Çaykur tea factories but also in private sector factories have been shown changeability.
 

* Çay Araştırma Enstitüsü Toprak KısımMüdürü.  1988 / RİZE
   Doğu Karadeniz Bölgesinde Tarımsal Üretimin Verimlilik Sorunları Sempozyumu - Bildiriler 28-30 Eylül
 

SOME POINT OF VIEWS AND PROPOSALS ABOUT FERTILIZE OF TEA

* Dr. Muammer SARIMEHMET              ** Hülya MAHMUTOĞLU

       SUMMARY

    
In our country,tea plant is only propagated in a limited area of Black Tea Region which is a limited microclimate region.Quality of the produced dry tea depends on the quality of raw material, directly.      Fertilization has a great importance in the technical supports for the healthy growth of  raw materials which  consist of  fresh tea shoots in tea culture.

    For propagating qualified and large amount of crops and providing  for requirement of  tea plants from nitrogen fertilizers, it is necessary to exist P and K in the soil.     In a study about the contents of nutrient elements of  tea soils, it was shown that the content of  P and especially in the old tea plantations, the content of K are low.

    The most suitable chemical fertilizer combination for satisfying the necessity of nutrient elements in our tea soils, was determined as a combination of  5:1:2 (N: P: K) compose fertilizer and it was suggested to apply the fertilizer as  80 -100 kgs / decar.
 

   * Çay Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü. Toprak Kısım Müdürü . Ziraat Yüksek Mühendisi 1991- RİZE
**  Çay Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü . Teknoloji Kısım Müdürlüğü Ziraat Yüksek Mühendisi  1991- RİZE


THE RESEARCH ABOUT AVAILABLE PHOSPHORUS VALUES IN THE TEA SOILS OF EASTERN BLACK SEA REGION

*N. Mucella MÜFTÜOĞLU                     ** Muammer SARIMEHMET

    SUMMARY

  
 In this study it is aimed to investigate  the available phosphorus values in the tea soils of eastern black sea region in Turkey. To do these phosphorus analyses were made on the 1815 chosen soil samples and the following results were taken.
   
    According to soil analyses results 80.55 %  for available phosphorus are in deficient.
 
 

A RESEARCH ON THE ORGANIC MATTER OF THE  TEA SOILS OF THE  EASTERN BLACK SEA REGION

* Muammer SARIMEHMET                             ** N.Mücella MÜFTÜOĞLU

 
    SUMMARY
 

    The purpose of the experiment was to determine the organic matter percentage of the tea soils. For this purpose 1677 sample was chosen and analyzed. The following results were obtained.

    In soil samples organic matter percentage was determined as 4.29, 9.96, 16.76, 47.05 % for the very little , little, medium excessive and very excessive levels respectively.

*Çay Enstitüsü Başkanlığı,RİZE
**Çay- Kur Pazarlama Bölge Müdürlüğü,İZMİR
   Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi Cilt,30 sayı.3 s. 49-56,1993    Bornova /İZMİR
 

A  RESEARCH ON THE SOIL ACIDITY OF THE TEA SOILS OF THE EASTERN BLACK SEA REGION

* N. Mücella MÜFTÜOĞLU                  ** Muammer SARIMEHMET

    SUMMARY

   
The purpose of the experiment was to determine the acidity of the tea soils. For this purpose 1815 sample was chosen and analyzed for acidity.The following results were obtained. The lowest pH is obtained in Rize.When  all the eastern black sea region was taken into consideration, 62.20 % of the soil was not optimum for the tea plantation.
 

 

A STUDY ABOUT THE DETERMINATION OF QUALITY PARAMETERS OF VARIOUS KINDS OF ÇAYKUR GREEN TEAS WHICH BELONG TO THE 1ST SHOOTING PERIOD OF 2004 AND THE COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF GREEN TEA THAT ARE  PRODUCED IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES
 

*Şaziye (ÇEPER) ILGAZ       **Dr. Muammer SARIMEHMET         ***Zuhal KALCIOĞLU 

    SUMMARY

   
Tea is classified into three main groups according to its manufacturing process; non-oxidized teas(green and white teas),semi-oxidized teas(oolong teas) and full-oxidized teas (black teas).

    Of the total tea manufactured worldwide,78 percent is black, 20 percent is green, and 2 percent is oolong tea.

    Green tea, originated from China has been used as a beverage and medicine in China since 2700 BC.The Japanese custom of drinking green tea came from China about 800 AD.

    Green tea is manufactured from the fresh shoots of Camellia sinensis.Green tea manufacturing depends on the inactivation of tea leaf enzymes which are called oxidation enzymes by steaming or pan-firing of fresh leaves.Polyphenol oxidase is the most important enzyme in green tea production. As the oxidation is prevented by the inactivation of polyhenols are not oxidised and the leaves remain green.

    The chemical composition of green tea varies with climate, season,horticultural practices, and the age of the leaf (position of the leaf on the harvested shoot).The major components of green tea are polyphenols especially EGCG.The other components of green tea are caffeine, theanine (a kind of amino acid),vitamins, organic acids, polysaccharides, protein lignin ,fluoride, minerals,etc.

    In recent years, with the advance of modern chemistry,components of green tea have been analyzed and the health effects of green tea have progressed to the point where there is now scientific confirmation for the saying that ‘Green teas is a miraculous drink for the maintenance of health’. This expression belongs to the monk Eisai from Japanese.

    One of the most exciting health developments of nineteenth century has been the discovery of anti-carcinogenic properties of green tea.In the last scientific researches have confirmed that green tea polyphenols have powerful anti-carcinogenic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and antimicrobial activities.

    With the increasing interest in green tea for health benefist, the developed countries in the world are all increasing their consumption of green tea.

    Green tea is mainly used as a beverage as dried tea, but it is also used in the manufacture of canned tea drinks, ice-creams,biscuits, cakes, catechins (supplies antioxidants for pharmaceutical products), cosmetis products (skin-care, shampoos, deodorants), filters, soaps, toothpaste, etc.

    In the 3rd shooting period of 2003, Çaykur green tea has been begun to produce in ‘Green The Experimental Production Centre’ of Çaykur Organization.At the beginning of this year, the production centre have been reorganized and developed for producing more green tea than before.And now its capacity is 10 tones fresh tea leaves per day.The inactivation of tea leaf enzymes which are called  oxidation enzymes is achieved by steaming in this production centre.Steamed tea leaves are rolled and dried gradually for improving the aroma and protecting the components of green tea as much as possible.

    The aim of this study is formed and developed the custom of drinking green tea especially Çaykur Green Tea in Turkey.For this reason,the quality characteristics of  Çaykur Green Tea have been tried to determine in Atatürk Tea Research Institute.

    For the research work fresh tea shoots of 1 st shooting period, crude and clssified Çaykur Green Teas, and six different markets in Turkey have been used as materials.

    A series of physical, chemical and organoleptic analysis have been done in Tea Research Institute labratories and the results of these analysis have been appreciated by means of statistical analysis method.

    Dried tea yield, different physical characteristics, moisture, water extract, total ash, water-soluble ash, acid-insoluble ash, alkalinity of water soluble ash, cellulose, polyphenol, caffeine, Cu, Fe, Zn,  Mn, Mg contents and organoleptic analysis of Çaykur Green Teas and six different kinds of green tea which are produced in foreign countries have been determined.

    As a conclusion; we can say that the results of the analysis of Çaykur Green tea which belongs to the 1st shooting period of 2004 were found to be corresponded to the results of the popular green teas in the world which were studied in Japan, China, India, England, USA, etc.And it was determined that the quality characteristics of Çaykur Green Teas are better than the other green teas are produced in foreign countries and sold in Turkey.

    Both of these analysis have been shown that Çaykur Green Tea is the best quality green tea in Turkey. We hope that it will be the best green tea in the world .  
 

*    Atatürk Çay ve Bahçe  Bitkileri Araştırma Enstitüsünde Ziraat Yüksek Mühendisi, Rize 
**  Atatürk Çay ve Bahçe Bitkileri Enstitüsü Müdürü, Rize
*** Atatürk Çay ve Bahçe Bitkileri Araştırma Enstitüsünde Ziraat Mühendisi
      Çay İşletmeleri Genel Müdürlüğü, 2004/ RİZE
 


 THE EFFECTS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON WASHING AWAY OF AVAILABLE  POTASSIUM IN SOIL FOR TEA FARMING
   
 
    *Cemil ALTIN               **Muammer  SARIMEHMET
   
 
    SUMMARY

    Chemical fertilizers, aside from being benifical to the soil in some ways, can create negative results as well.Nitrogen fertilizers ,in particular,can cause acidity  in the soil and make it easier for some basic cations to be washed away.With the idea that the ammonium sulphate fertilizers, which have been used in tea farming for some time, makes it easier for the potassium in the soil to be washed away, research was conducted upon soil samples taken from 6 different tea fields which would produce different levels of potassium.

    These samples were air dried in the Institute’s laboratory then measured out into 1.5 kg samples and later placed in special washing containers.Four treatments were administered to the soil samples and each treatment repeated 3 times. In the first treatment 30 kg of ammonium suphate was administered to the dekar; in the 2nd and 3 rd treatments the same amount of ammonium, including azote as well, and urea were added; and in the 4th treatment no fertilizers were added.

    After washing, the washed percentage value of  K found in the soil was less than the percentage value of K found in the drained soil.This situation results from the fact that the available potassium in the soil which has decreased after washing was reinforced by the non-available potassium found in the soil.

    After washing it was seen that from the free potassium as a whole, the % of potassium which was washed away the most was found after the application of ammonium sulphate (40.59 %), thereafter ammonium nitrate (32.5 %) and later urea ( 30.46 %). In the samples where the least % of potasium was washed away was seen in samples where fertilizers were not administered.

  *  Assistant Director of General Directory of Tea Processing Plants, Rize
**  Head of Soil Department in Tea Research Institute ,Rize
   TUBITAK CAYKUR The General Directory of  Tea Processing Plants – 1987 / RİZE


COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT TEA MANUFACTURE METHODS IN TURKEY
 

* Hamit VANLI              ** Mustafa BİLSEL              ***Muammer SARIMEHMET

      SUMMARY

     In Turkey manufacture of black tea leaves is being done using the classical rolling system since 1940.Rotorvane was used only in Çiftlik Tea Factory in 1979 and Muratlı and Taşçılar Factories in 1984. Besides rolling method, different production methods and various combinations of these were developed and used in tea producing countries.

    This study aims to define the most suitable production method for our country considering the quality and capacity, using the existing machinery and combination of the two production methods (rolling and rotorvane ) presently used. In the trials, tea leaves bought daily at five purchasing offices belonging to Cumhuriyet Tea Plant  were used.For each combination approximately 2500 kg of leaves were used.

    Trials were run for five production combinations and law of repeating averages , without interfering with the production norm.

    Production combinations used in the trial runs were

a) Plain+Pressed Rolling
b) Plain Rolling + Rotorvane
c) Rotorvane + Plain Rolling
d) Rotorvane + Rotorvane
e) Plain Rolling + Rotorvane + Rotorvane
Oxidation was started with the rolling and breaking of the leaves and was kept constant until drying. Wet  sieving was applied.

 
   *  Director of Tea Research Intitute,Rize
 **  Head of Chem. Department in Tea Research Institute, Rize
*** Head of Soil Department in Tea Research Institute, Rize
     TUBITAK CAYKUR  The General Directory of Tea Processing Plants, 1987 / RİZE
 

A STUDY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE SPLIT APPLICATION OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON THE TEA PLANT

 
  *Burhan KACAR           ** Rıfat YALÇIN              *** Muammer SARIMEHMET        ****Hülya MAHMUTOĞLU        ***** Mücella MÜFTÜOĞLU                
 
 

   
SUMMARY
 

   
Field trials have been carried out for three years in four different places to evaluate the effectiveness of the split application of nitrogen fertilizer on the tea plants. Three different rates of the nitrogen fertilizer applied in one time and every fifteen days after dividing 2,3 and 6 equals parts.

 
    The yield of tea leaves and N content of the plants increased linearly in parallel to the amounts of nitrogen fertilizer applied.The effectiveness of the split application of nitrogen fertilizer has been found significant in all experimental areas and in the period of trials. It is concluded that future trials should be carried out in the tea plantations established with vegetative propegation and the intervals of the split application of nitrogen fertilizer should be shortened as much as possible.
 

 
     * Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Toprak Bölümü. ANKARA
    ** Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Toprak Bölümü. ANKARA 
   *** Çay Enstitüsü Başkanlığı .RİZE
  **** Çay Enstitüsü Başkanlığı .RİZE
 ***** Çay Enstitüsü Başkanlığı .RİZE
        Doga.Tr.J.Of.Agrıculture and Forestry.1S (1991) 685-699. TUBİTAK
 

A RESEARCH ON THE TOTAL NITROGEN OF THE TEA SOILS OF THE EASTERN BLACK SEA REGION
 

 
* Muammer SARIMEHMET                    ** N. Mücella MÜFTÜOĞLU
   
    SUMMARY

   
The purpose  of the experiment was to determine the total nitrogen of the tea soils. For this purpose 1677 sample  was chosen and analyzed.The following results were obtained.

    In soil samples total nitrogen was determined as 3.10 % very little , 2.68 % little , 20.81 % medium , 42.52% high and 30.89 % very high. 
 
 
 *Çay -kur  Pazar köy Çay Fabrikası.RİZE
 **Çay-kur Pazarlama Bölge Müdürlüğü. İZMİR
Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi,Cilt.30 Sayı.3 .1993.İZMİR

A STUDY OF CESIUM RADIONUCLEIDS IN SOIL, PLANTS AND MADE TEA SAMPLES THAT WERE EFFECTED BY CERNOBIL HAVE BEEN TAKEN
FROM THE
TEA PLANTATION AREAS IN TIREBOLU, ARAKLI,SÜRMENE, SALARHA AND KIRAZLIK REGIONS
 

*Dr. Muammer SARIMEHMET              **Selma YURDOĞLU

    SUMMARY

    In Turkey , a series of researches have been done since the Çernobil accident.This subject is very important not only in Turkey, but also in European countries.It was a very bad experience for the world.We believe that these kind of studies are very important for our safety.

    In soil samples taken from the plantation areas in Tirebolu , Araklı, Sürmene, salarha and Kirazlık total radioactivity levels of 134 Cs and 137 Cs were found to be 216, 106, 118, 283 and 415 Bq/kg respectively. At the same plantation areas, in the stems of the tea plants, radioactivity levels of  cesium were found to be 208, 139 , 268, 461 and 425 Bq/kg respectively.The least radioactivity levels were found in Araklı and the most radioactiviy levels were found in Salaha And Kirazlık plantation areas . There is an important correlation between soil and plant radio –activity levels of the same plants.The radioactivity levels of cesium have been counted to be 132, 248 , 143, 314 ve 369 Bq/kg , respectively, in the old leaves is less than the level  in the plant stems.The radioactivity of cesium was measured with the old tea leaves that were taken from the pruned tea bushes.These results showed that the radioactivity of cesium rates decreased a little but this is not important statistically.

    In this study , the tea leaves were taken from pruned and unpruned tea bushes.The radioactivity levels of cesium were compared between pruned and unpruned tea bushes during the first, second and third flush periods.

  *Atatürk Çay ve Bahçe Bitkileri Araştırma Enstitüsü. RİZE
**Çekmece Araştırma ve Eğitim Merkezi.İSTANBUL
   ÇEV-KOR. Çevre ,Eğitim Merkezi Yayınları No.2 . 1998 İZMİR
 

 A STUDY ABOUT THE DETERMINATION OF THE CONTENTS OF MACRO ELEMENTS (N,P,K) AND THE PRODUCTIVITY ABILITIES OF TEA SOILS
 

* Dr. Muammer SARIMEHMET

    SUMMARY
 

 
    In this study , 600 thousands decare of the tea  plantations have been  surveyed and 1678 soil samples were collected.The nutritional elements have been analysed in these soil samples as organic matters % , N % , P % , K % and pH levels of them.

    As a result of this study ,it was determined that  % of organic matter contents of the soils are not too low, but they are medium.It was found that the acidity of tea soils are too high depends on the quality and quantity of used nitrogen fertilizers.

    It was shown that the contents of (N,P,K) these three macro nutrient elements are low , and it was determined that not only nitrogen fertilizers but also P and K fertilizers must be used in fertilization of tea soils.
 
* Çay Enstitüsü Başkanlığ,1987, RİZE
   Çay İşletmeleri Genel Müdürlüğü Nisan,1987,RİZE  
 

A STUDY ABOUT THE DETERMİNATİON OF THE SOİL PHOSPHATE (PHOSPHORUS) CONTENT OF EAST BLACK SEA REGİON OF TURKEY AND PHOSPHATE CONTENT OF HYBRID TEA PLANTS GROWN IN THIS AREA
 

 * Muammer SARIMEHMET

    SUMMARY
 

    The research which is a subject of this paper,is realised in two parts.In the first part of this study , all of the tea  plantations are surveyed and soil samples are collected so, each soil sample represents 500 decare of land.Thus 1678 soil samples are collected to represent 63,800 hectare of land where tea is grown.Not only the other analysis but also phosphate contents of these samples which can be used by tea plant are determined  and as a result, it is found that in 83.2 % of the soils the phosphate content is low or too low.

    In the second part of the study, 3 locations in the region are chosen, and in each  plantation four plants are chosen.During the two  years , in harvesting periods  leaf samples are collected from those chosen plants.

    Phosphate contents of the leaves were found as 0.43 % , 0.34 % , 0.26 %, 0.17% in the bud+first leaf,second leaf,third+fourth leaves , and old leaf respectively.At the same time phosphate contents of local and foreign produced teas were determined and it was found that phosphate contents of local produced teas were lower than phosphate contents of foreign produced teas.

 
* Atatürk Çay ve Bahçe Bitkileri Araştırma Enstitüsü , RİZE.
 Toprak İlmi Derneği (Soil Science Society Of Turkey) 10 Bilimsel Tebliğler.1980,ANKARA.
 

THE EFFECTS OF N, P AND K FERTILIZERS ON THE GROWTH OF TEA CUTTINGS
WHICH HAVE BEEN TAKEN FROM TWO PREVIOUSLY SELECTED CLONES

 

* Dr.Muammer SARIMEHMET

 
    SUMMARY
 

    This research project was started in the Rize Tea Research Institute of Turkey in March 1985.Cuttings have been taken from two perviously selected clones named Muradiye- 10 and Fener-3 were planted in two different mediums of soil+perlit and soil+sand which were contained in polyethylene bags of suitable size (measures of volume).The plants have been transferred into the shaded polyethylene tunnels have developed an evident root and top growth in six months time and have taken the form of nursery during this period.The nurseries on this stage were used as the test plant in the experiment.The test plants were supplied with different levels of N (No , Nı ,N2 and N3 ), P ( Po, Pı ,P2) and K (Ko, Kı, K2).Since the N3 applications have caused severe damage to the plants, this treatment was completely eliminated  and  tea experiment rearranged in 2x2x3x3x3 factorial design.

    In the experiment the nutrients were applied to the growing mediums in solution in 10 equal portions with a frequency of two weeks intervals. The carriers of N ,P and K were 21 % (NH4)2SO4 , pure P2O5 and 50 % K2SO4 respectively.After one year of growth.the nurseries were harvested.On the harvested plants, growth parameters such as dryweight of leaves , stems , roots and the ration of top to roots and the ratio of top to root , leaf area , number of leaves and plants hight were meaured or calculated; and the chemical analysis such as N , P and K contents of leaves , stems and roots were carried out.

    Statistical evolution (analysis) of the experimental data have shown that the highest leaf and stem weight , top to root ratio , leaf area, number of leaves and plant hight were obtained with NıP2Ko fertilizer treatment.On the other hand NıPıK2 fertilizer combination has given the highest root weight.On the basis of these results it was concluded that 1 g.N (Nı), 3 g P2O5 (P2) and no potassium (Ko) per plant were optimum N ,P ,K levels.But for the root growth , the optimum K level was found to be K2 (3 g.K2O) treatment .Ineffectiveness of leaves, stems and roots were carried out.

    Statistical evolution (analysis) of the experimental data have shown that highest leaf and stem weight , top to root ratio , leaf area, number of leaves and plant hight were obtained with NıP2Ko fertilizer treatment.ON the other hand NıPıK2 fertilizer combination has given the highest root weight.On the basis of these results it was concluded that 1 g.N (Nı), 3 g. P2O5 (P2) and no potassium (Ko) per plant were optimum N,P, K levels.But for the root growth , the optimum K level was found to be K2 (3 g. K2O) treatment.Ineffectiveness of the K treatments on majority of the growth parameters tend to suggest that the soil used in preparing the growth media may contain plant available K high enough for nurseries.

    As a result of chemical palnt analysis it was inferred that N , P and K contents of leaves , stems and roots have increased depending on the increasing N ,P, K applications. On the other hand. an antagonistic effect between N and K was noted, especially in higher N and K application levels.Namely, İncreasing N levels decreased K uptake and vice versa by the test plant.

  * Atatürk Çay ve Bahçe Bitkileri araşırma Enstitüsü.RİZE
   Çay İşletmeleri Genel Müdürlüğü Çaykur Yayını, No.11,1988 RİZE
 

A PROJECT ABOUT THE REORGANIZATION OF TEA FARMING IN TURKEY (Prunning and Fertilization)

 

*Dr.Muammer SARIMEHMET        **Hamit VANLI            ***Dursun NAİBOĞLU    ****Yetiş SARIAHMETOĞLU

       SUMMARY
 

     For the next generation can be taking advantage of tea farming and industry, it is important the reorganization of tea farming and must  be making investments for this sector.In last years tea farming is lost its value.Thus the amount of total income has been decreased therefore the population density has been reduced in East Black Tea Region.Because of the properties of tea farming , there isn’t enough possibility to make other agricultural activities productively in this region.For that reason tea farming must be reorganized immediately and rehabilitation projects must be developed about this subject.

    It is inevitable for this sector that tea shrubs must be prunned a time per five years,the contents of tea soils must be analysed and it must be abandoned for applying only N fertilizers, usage of organic fertilizers must be became widespread in tea farming, apposite technologies must be elected for farming and manufacturing, tea farming and manufacturing methods must be compatible with the standards of TSE and ISO, the value of fresh tea leaves must be gone up and market value of produced tea and fresh tea leaves must be put up between  100%  300%. Some efficient projects must be formed and developed these obligations.
 

   * Çaykur Pazarköy Çay Fabrikası Müdürü.RİZE
  ** Çaykur Genel Müdür Yardımcısı.RİZE
 *** Çaykur Genel Müdür Yardımcısı.RİZE
**** Çaykur Tarım Dairesi Başkanı.RİZE
      Çay İşletmeleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Nisan-1992 RİZE
 

A STUDY TO  DETERMINE THE SOIL POTASSIUM CONTENT OF EAST BLACK SEA REGION OF TURKEY
 
AND POTASSIUM CONTENT OF HYBRID TEA PLANTS GROWN IN THIS AREA
 

*Muammer SARIMEHMET

    SUMMARY

  
 The research which is a subject of this paper is realised in two parts.In the first part all of the tea palantations are surveyed and soil samples are collected so, each soil sample represents 500 decare of land.Thus 1678 soil samples are collected to represent 63800 hectare of land where tea is grown.Ammonium acetate soluable potassium cotent of these samples are determined and as a result , it is found that in 32.88% of the soils the potassium content is low , while in  44.15 % of the soils , the potassium content is medium and in % 22.97 of the soils potassium content is high.
 

    In the second part, 3 locations in the region are chosen , and in each locations four plantations, and in each plantation four plants are chosen.Leaf samples are collected from those chosen plants ,every year after harvest during the course of two years.The leaves are grouped as first leave + during the course of two years.The leaves are grouped as first leave + bud, second leaves, thirds+fourth leaves and these grouped as first leave + bud , second leaves, thirds + fourth leaves and these groups of leaves are analysed for the potassium content.Total potassium content of the leaves were found as1.75% , 1.65% , 1.45% , 0.96 % in the bud + first leaf  , second leaf , third + fourth leaf  and old leaf respectively.  
 

* Atatürk Çay ve Bahçe Bitkileri Araştırma Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü, 1987 RİZE.
  Bitkisel üretimde Azot Potasyum interaksiyonu (Nitrogen and Potassium interaction in crop production)Uluslar arası  Gübre Semineri , 1987 .ANKARA.

NOWADAYS THE CONDITION OF TURKISH TEA INDUSTRY,   ITS PROBLEMS AND DEVELOPING STUDIES ABOUT ITS FUTURE
 
* Muammer SARIMEHMET
 

    SUMMARY

 
   Nowadays the problems of tea industry can be ranged as harvesting and raw material, applied tecnology,packaging , personnal positions,and marketing problems.

    Because of the tea gardens haven’t been established with tea clones, it may not be possible to harvest tea leaves according to the plucking standarts on account of inefficient mechanisation , the production cost of tea is going to be higher.Due to the unqualified packaging technologies, it is difficult to protect the quality characteristics of tea.Employing the unreasonable labor quantities in tea organisation is another factor which is putting up the production cost of tea.There is not an efficient marketing net in tea industry , for that reason it is impossible to catch a high level for sale at retail and wholesale.
 

 
 * Çay Araştırma Enstitüsü - RİZE
   Ondokuz mayıs Üniversitesi  Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları no 14-1986, SAMSUN
 
 

THE EFFECTS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZERS (Ammonium sulphate , Ammonium Nitrate and Urine)
ON WASHING AWAY OF AVAILABLE POTASSIUM IN SOIL FOR TEA FARMING
 

*Muammer SARIMEHMET

 
    SUMMARY
 
 
    In this research six different kinds of soil samples and three different kinds of nitrogen fertilizers were used.In this study corrupt (spoilt) soil samples were used,and also fertilizers were applied after solving in distilled water.

    In these six different soil samples , after washing nine times, it was determined that from the free potassium as a whole, the percentage of potassium which was washed away , the most was found after the application of ammonium sulphate with 40.59 % , thereafter ammonium nitrate  with 32.50 % and later urea with 30.46 % .In the samples where the least % of potasium was washed away, was seen in samples where fertilizers were not administered.

    As a result of this study it was determined that nitrogen fertilizers in the ammonium form which has been used in tea fertilization has made it easier to wash away a rather significiant amount of potassium in the soil.As matter of fact, this deficiency which has been observed in the tea soil comes from the fact that the shrub robs the soil of potassium which is also washed away as well.
 
   
 
   * Çay Araştırma Enstitüsü Toprak Kısım MÜdürlüğü.RİZE.
     Çay kurumu Genel Müdürlüğü Çay Araştırma Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü.1983,RİZE.
 
 

COMPARISON OF SOME PROPERTIES OF SOILS WHICH BELONG TO THE TEA PLANTATION AREAS IN EAST BLACK TEA REGION

 
* N.Mucella MÜFTÜOĞLU                       **Muammer SARIMEHMET
 
 
    SUMMARY

    In this study, it was intended to show up the differences of the contents of organic matters, N,P,K and the levels of pH in soils which belonged to the tea plantation areas and other areas in East Black Tea Region.The results of the analysis of 340 soil samples which were taken in parallel were determined as below.

 
    The most important differences were determined among the values of soil acidity.It was found that pH levels of tea plantation areas were lower than the other areas .In tea plantation areas organic matters and total N were found high  level,but there were no differences among the values of changeable K and available P.
 
 
* COMU. Ziraat Fakültesi .ÇANAKKALE
 ** Çay-kur Pazarköy Çay Fabrikası. RİZE
    Dogu Karadeniz Bölgesinde Çay kültürüne alınmış ve alınmamış toprakların bazı özellikleri yönünden karşılaştırılması.Ziraat Mühendisliği Dergisi.1998 Mayıs Haziran sayısı 315- 44,46 ANKARA.

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